In this book chapter, Michael Callahan notes that to succeed in a negligent credentialing claim, a plaintiff must establish that the hospital had a duty to the patient, the duty was breached, the breach caused the patient's injury, and the patient suffered damages as a result. He further details these standards and the defenses that can be asserted by a hospital. Michael also notes several ways for preventing hospitals from breaching their duty to patients, including creating a robust appointment and reappointment process, aligning criteria and qualifications with best practices, and ensure remedial measures are in place.